Probabilities in the Galaxy


A Distribution Model for habitable Planets

Copyright © Klaus Piontzik
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17.1 - The Kardashov scale

The Kardashov scale goes back to the Russian astronomer Nikolai Kardashov, who in 1964 designed a categorization of the stages of development of extraterrestrial civilizations according to their energy use.

The Kardashov scale originally had three categories, but has now been expanded somewhat. A civilization is classified based on its energy use.


Type 0 -   Civilization is at the previous technological level of Earth, 1960-90
Type 1 -   The civilization is able to use all the power available on a planet
Type 2 -   The Civilization is capable of harnessing the total power of its central star
Type 3 -   The Civilization is capable of harnessing the total power of a galaxy

Intermediate values ??are not present in the original Kardashov scale. In 1973, Carl Sagan, using an adapted equation, extrapolated the human status to 0.7.

Up to development level 6 (technological level), a civilization is Typ 0 on the Kardashov scale.

Only when a civilization has reached level 7, i.e. is able to colonize its own solar system, can it develop the technologies necessary to use the available power of the home planet.

So only at development level 7 (multiplanetary level) is a civilization able to reach Type 1 on the Kardashov scale.

When level 7 is established, i.e. when a species has colonized planets, moons and asteroids in its solar system, it is able to survive cosmic catastrophes for the first time.

It is likely that only at development level 8 (interstellar level) will a civilization be able to reach Type 2 on the Kardashov scale..

This means that the final development stage scale can be seamlessly added to the extended Kardashov scale.


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 Probabilities in the Galaxy

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176 sides, of them 64 in Color
76 pictures
11 tables

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ISBN 9-783-7528-5524-1

Price: 22 Euro

The Autor - Klaus Piontzik